Transmisión Perinatal del VIH
Current Knowledge of Perinatal Transmission of HIV
Eddy Perez-Then, M.D., Cenismi, República Dominicana.
Since 1994, in the USA and Europe, antiretroviral and obstetric interventions and the avoidance of breastfeeding have dramatically reduced mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. However, most of the 17.6 million HIV-infected women live in resource-poor countries and do not have access to antiretroviral medication or safe alternatives to breastfeeding.
Each year, an estimated 590,000 infants acquire HIV infection from their mothers, mostly in developing countries that are unable to implement interventions now standard in the industrialized world. Recent randomized clinical trials have assessed the efficacy of a number of relatively simple and inexpensive perinatal antiretroviral interventions as well as helped clarify the rate and timing of HIV-1 transmission attributable to breastfeeding.
This presentation reviews current knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries, summarizes key findings from the trials, outlines future research requirements, and describes public health challenges of implementing perinatal HIV prevention interventions in resource-poor settings. There is also mentioned the importance of the primary prevention strategies to reduce incident HIV infections among adolescent and women of childbearing age. Successful implementation of available perinatal HIV interventions could substantially improve global child survival.